Waste management on islands turns out to be more difficult compared to mainland states, especially on the large number of small islands worldwide. Challenges might depend whether an islands belongs to a state on the continent, or it is member of an organization like the EU, or it is fully independent. For creating an environmentally sound waste management, a larger number of properties and problems have to be analyzed. Especially, recycling will be more difficult because no special industrial structures might be available on small islands. For responsible initiatives on islands, as well as for consultants or technology transfer, a procedure according to the development of a waste management plan should be followed. It is also recommended to make an integral approach, taking into account also energy and drinking water supply, as well as waste water management. Finally, several examples are presented (with more details for Malta and Iceland) where island have succeeded in making more or less progress, taking into account EU regulations as well as specific properties of the individual island.